This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time. Western modern history of English and English Historical Linguistics PDF linguistics dates from the late 18th century. It grew out of the earlier discipline of philology, the study of ancient texts and documents dating back to antiquity.
Författare: Andreas H. Jucker.
"Einführung in die Geschichte der englischen Sprache
– Von den Anfängen bis in die heutige Zeit
– Mit Schwerpunkten auf dem sozio-kulturellem Hintergrund und den wechselnden kommunikativen Erfordernissen im Lauf der Jahrhunderte"
At first, historical linguistics served as the cornerstone of comparative linguistics primarily as a tool for linguistic reconstruction. Some scholars have undertaken studies attempting to establish super-families, linking, for example, Indo-European, Uralic, and other families into Nostratic. These attempts have not been accepted widely. The information necessary to establish relatedness becomes less available as the time depth is increased. Initially, all modern linguistics was historical in orientation. Even the study of modern dialects involved looking at their origins. Ferdinand de Saussure’s distinction between synchronic and diachronic linguistics is fundamental to the present day organization of the discipline.
In linguistics, a synchronic analysis is one that views linguistic phenomena only at a given time, usually the present, though a synchronic analysis of a historical language form is also possible. This may be distinguished from diachronic, which regards a phenomenon in terms of developments through time. In practice, a purely synchronic linguistics is not possible for any period before the invention of the gramophone, as written records always lag behind speech in reflecting linguistic developments. Written records are difficult to date accurately before the development of the modern title page. Synchronic and diachronic approaches can reach quite different conclusions.
The principal tools of research in diachronic linguistics are the comparative method and the method of internal reconstruction. The findings of historical linguistics are often used as a basis for hypotheses about the groupings and movements of peoples, particularly in the prehistoric period. In practice, however, it is often unclear how to integrate the linguistic evidence with the archaeological or genetic evidence. Genetic relatedness implies a common origin or proto-language.
Comparative linguistics has the goal of constructing language families, reconstructing proto-languages, and specifying the changes that have resulted in the documented languages. Etymology is the study of the history of words: when they entered a language, from what source, and how their form and meaning have changed over time. In languages with a long and detailed history, etymology makes use of philology, the study of how words change from culture to culture over time. Dialectology is the scientific study of linguistic dialect, the varieties of a language that are characteristic of particular groups, based primarily on geographic distribution and their associated features.
Dialectologists are concerned with grammatical features that correspond to regional areas. Thus, they are usually dealing with populations living in specific locales for generations without moving, but also with immigrant groups bringing their languages to new settlements. Phonology is a sub-field of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language or set of languages. Whereas phonetics is about the physical production and perception of the sounds of speech, phonology describes the way sounds function within a given language or across languages. An important part of phonology is studying which sounds are distinctive units within a language.
For example, the „p“ in „pin“ is aspirated, but the „p“ in „spin“ is not. English, and topics such as syllable structure, stress, accent, and intonation. The principles of phonological theory have also been applied to the analysis of sign languages, but the phonological units do not consist of sounds. The principles of phonological analysis can be applied independently of modality because they are designed to serve as general analytical tools, not language-specific ones. This field studies the internal structure of words as a formal means of expression.
Words as units in the lexicon are the subject matter of lexicology. Syntax is the study of the principles and rules for constructing sentences in natural languages. Studies in historical linguistics often use the terms „conservative“ or „innovative“ to characterize the extent of change occurring in a particular language or dialect as compared with related varieties. In particular, a conservative variety changes relatively less than an innovative variety. These variations in plasticity are often related to the socio-economic situation of the language speakers.
A particularly conservative variety that preserves features that have long since vanished elsewhere is sometimes said to be „archaic“. While there are few examples of archaic language in modern society, some have survived in set phrases or in nursery rhymes. Editors‘ Introduction: Foundations of the new historical linguistics. The Routledge Handbook of Historical Linguistics Routledge p. Rheis, International Journal of Linguistics, Philology and Literature.
The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics, June 2010. A formal language is a set of words, i. The inventory from which these letters are taken is the alphabet through which the language is defined. 1: Language Development from an Evolutionary Perspective“. We therefore must distinguish the cultural, or Lamarckian, evolution of language, a concern of historical linguistics, from its biological, or neo-Darwinian, evolution, a concern of developmental biology. Bernd Kortmann: English Linguistics: Essentials, Anglistik-Amerikanistik, Cornlesen, pp.
With co-authors Martin Atkinson, David Britain, Harald Clahsen, Andrew Spencer. Roger Lass, Historical linguistics and language change. Partridge, Tudor to Augustan English: a Study in Syntax and Style, from Caxton to Johnson, in series, The Language Library, London: A. August Schleicher: Compendium der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen. Kurzer Abriss der indogermanischen Ursprache, des Altindischen, Altiranischen, Altgriechischen, Altitalischen, Altkeltischen, Altslawischen, Litauischen und Altdeutschen.